Pang and No. Li and H. The data sets supporting the conclusions of this article are included within its additional files. AZ and HSL conducted phylogenetic analyses. Niehuis and BM. All authors approved its final submission. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Molecular phylogeny reveals food plasticity in the evolution of true ladybird beetles Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Coccinellini.
Open Access. First Online: 26 June Part of the following topical collections: Phylogenetics and phylogeography. Background The tribe Coccinellini is a group of relatively large ladybird beetles that exhibits remarkable morphological and biological diversity. Results We present the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of Coccinellini to date, based on three nuclear and one mitochondrial gene sequences of 38 taxa, which represent all major Coccinellini lineages.
Conclusions Our results suggest that the classification of Coccinellini has been misled by convergence in morphological traits. Background Ladybirds Coccinellidae are a well-defined monophyletic group of small to medium sized beetles of the superfamily Coccinelloidea, the superfamily formerly known as the Cerylonid Series within the superfamily Cucujoidea [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. Coccinellini are generally viewed as predators of aphids, but their diet is much more diverse and often includes other hemipterous insects i.
Coccinellini display extraordinary morphological diversity in all life stages and are among the most conspicuously and attractively coloured beetles, often bearing strikingly red or yellow elytra, with contrasting black spots, stripes, or fasciae Figs. Many species of Coccinellini are also of great economic importance as biological control agents or unwanted invaders on a scale of entire continents e. Open image in new window. Taxon sampling and morphology We analysed 38 species of Coccinellini belonging to 32 of 90 genera.
Phylogenetic analyses The coding DNA sequence of each gene was translated to the corresponding amino-acid sequence with the software Virtual Ribosome version 2. Ancestral character state reconstruction The ancestral character states of six discrete morphological and of one behavioural character Additional file 1 : Table S3 were inferred using the maximum parsimony MP and ML methods as implemented in Mesquite version 3. The Mk1 model, also implemented in Mesquite, was used to calculate the ML probabilities of the ancestral states.
Coccinellini — Monophyly and sister relationship To assess the support for the monophyly of Coccinellini, we used a comprehensive taxon sampling that represents all previously recognized tribes of Coccinellinae: Coccinellini, Discotomini, Halyziini, Singhikaliini, and Tytthaspidini incl. Major clades within the tribe Our analyses recovered three strongly supported clades within Coccinellini Fig. Ancestral state reconstruction The results from the ancestral state reconstruction of adult pubescence, mandible type, female colleterial glands, larval dorsal gland openings, larval wax secretions, and pupal gin traps are presented on Additional files 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 and 15 : Figs.
Phylogenetic analyses In agreement with previously published molecular phylogenetic studies [ 2 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 ] the monophyly of Coccinellini was resolved with high confidence in our analyses. Our studies are also consistent with the research based on nuclear and mitochondrial markers [ 2 , 15 , 17 ] recovering Chilocorini as the sister taxon of Coccinellini.
The traditional idea of Coccinellini and Epilachnini being sister groups [ 9 , 11 ], derived from studying morphological characters, remained unsupported by our analyses, as they were in other molecular analyses, which recovered Epilachnini at the base of the tree of Coccinellidae [ 15 ], within the taxa classified in Coccidulini incl. Scymnini; [ 14 , 16 , 17 ] or as sister to Coccidulini [ 52 ].
Our results Fig.
S9 , with the exception of the genus Singhikalia former Singhikaliini , the only known pubescent Coccinellini. The genus Singhikalia is deeply nested within the tribe Coccinellini and represents an interesting case of convergence, possibly because it is mimicking local members of Epilachnini. In this respect, all Singhikalia species match local members of Epilachnini very closely, to the extent that they are often found in the same series in museum collections, suggesting that they may co-occur in the same area and host plants.
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Acknowledgments We are grateful to A. Availability of data and materials The data sets supporting the conclusions of this article are included within its additional files. Consent for publication Not applicable. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Character states of six discrete morphological and of one behavioural character. DOCX 29 kb. Primers used for PCR amplification of the genes. DOCX 17 kb. The nucleotide multiple sequence alignment MSA , used for the phylogenetic analysis, its partitions, nucleotide composition information and percentage of gaps and ambiguities per taxa. NEX kb. S1b , COI Fig. PDF kb. The best BIC multiple sequence alignment partitioning scheme with corresponding substitution models generated with PartitionFinder version 1. TXT 2 kb. The resulting tree of the MrBayes Bayesian analysis with posterior probabilities.
Specimens used in this study with voucher identification Australian National Insect Collection , data, and corresponding GenBank accession numbers. XLS 35 kb. Ancestral state reconstruction based on parsimony A and maximum likelihood B for female colleterial glands in Coccinellidae. The ancestral states are present blue and absent green.
The topology is derived from the ML tree in Fig. TIFF kb. Ancestral state reconstruction based on parsimony A and maximum likelihood B for pupal gin traps in Coccinellidae. The ancestral states are present green , absent blue , unknown shadowed and uncertain grey. Ancestral state reconstruction based on parsimony A and maximum likelihood B for larval dorsal glands in Coccinellidae.
The ancestral states are present blue , absent green , unknown shadowed and uncertain grey. Ancestral state reconstruction based on parsimony A and maximum likelihood B for larval waxes in Coccinellidae. Ancestral state reconstruction based on parsimony A and maximum likelihood B for presence of dorsal pubescence in Coccinellidae. Ancestral state reconstruction based on parsimony A and maximum likelihood B for mandible type in Coccinellidae. The ancestral states are separated on fungivorous light blue , mildew purple , carnivorous1 red , microphagous yellow , phytophagous green , carnivorous2 black.
Ancestral state reconstruction based on parsimony A and maximum likelihood B for food preferences in Coccinellidae.
An annotated checklist of Microweiseinae and Sticholotidini of Iran (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae)
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Related Australian Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): Their Biology and Classification
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